It is well known that the beetle Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli 1763) produces a particular pheromone, the (R)-(+)-γ-decalattone, which also humans can smell (Larsson et al. 2003). This particular trait will be exploited for surveillance by using a dog that we are training (in collaboration with a specialized training center for search dogs) using the scent of O. eremita. One problem with populations of *O. eremita is that they are confined to small hollows in tree trunks, thus highly localized and often scarcely accessible to the human observer. The use of a trained search-dogs in team with its entomologist-handler will make it easier to find and monitor this particular beetle species by means of its characteristic scent. This approach is based on dogs which were successfully used in New Zealand to find kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, Gray 1845), a rare, flightless bird and promises to find many unknown populations of this rare beetle, which would otherwise be difficult to find. Besides, there are few examples of dog trained to find insects using its scent; one of these is the case of the invasive alien species of the genus Anoplophora introduced in Europe from Asia (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, 1854 and Anoplophora chinensis Forster, 1771), two longhorn beetles very harmful for several species of trees (Hoyer-Tomiczek, 2012). Teseo, our Osmo-dog (a dog trained to find Osmoderma eremita), will be the first example of dog trained to monitoring in a non-invasive way of species included in the European Habitats Directive. The training of Teseo is currently underway.
The Osmo-dog will also be used also to attract media attention (television, radio, internet and local and national press) to the topics: Natura 2000, Insect conservation, forest habitat needs for the saproxylics, Habitats Directive, etc.). This level of media attention at the national level would not be easy to achieve without the "curiosity" Osmo-dog.